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Country Reports, June 2, 2006
posted by admin on 12/06/06
Shrimp Farmers Meeting
The Australian Prawn [Shrimp] Farmers Association's next General Meeting will be held on July 26-28, 2006, at the Rydges Esplanade Resort in Cairns, Queensland.
The Association has decided not to conduct a trade show this year It plans to rejoin the Barramundi Conference in 2007.
Information: Australian Prawn Farmers Association, Level 6, 183 North Quay, P.O. Box 12009, Brisbane, Queensland 4003, Australia (phone 07-3837-4777, fax 07-3236-4100, email email@example.com, webpage http://www.apfa.com.au/prawnfarmers2.cfm?inc=tour).
Source: FisheNews (an email supplement to Austasia Aquaculture magazine, www.austasiaaquaculture.com.au). Editor, Tim Walker (firstname.lastname@example.org) Forthcoming Events-Australia May 18, 2006.
Farm For Sale: $650,000
We are selling a 221-hectare shrimp farm (150 hectares available for ponds) that is under construction in the state of Bahia, near the city of Canavieiras. Fifty hectares have already been licenced for use by the Brazilian Government, and about fifty percent of the work has been completed on them. The engineering company that is doing the work will negotiate with the new owners to finish the project. Roads, power and worker's quarters have already been installed.
Information (photos and additional information): João Bosco Q. Santana (email@example.com).
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, "firstname.lastname@example.org"). Subject: [shrimp] RES: Brazilian Shrimp Farm. From: email@example.com May 22, 2006.
Penaeus japonicus, a Cryptic Species
In this study, researchers analyze the genetic differences in Penaeus japonicus from ten locations in the western Pacific.
Based on the sequence data and restriction profile of mitochondrial genes, they separated the shrimp into two clades, representing two cryptic species.
[A clade is a group of organisms that share a common ancestor and all the descendents of that ancestor. A cryptic species complex is a group of species that satisfy the scientific definition of species--that is, they are reproductively isolated from each other--but anatomically indistinguishable. The individual species within the complex can only be separated by using molecular genetics such as DNA barcoding.]
Clade I comprises populations from Japan and China (including Taiwan), while clade II consists of populations from the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam, Australia and the Mediterranean Sea. AFLP [Amplified fragment length polymorphism, a type of PCR] analysis provides no evidence for hybridization between the two species. Results of this study confirm the occurrence of two cryptic P. japonicus species in the western Pacific and also demonstrate high population differentiation of the species distributed in Southeast Asia, Australia, and possibly elsewhere in the Indo-West Pacific.
This study highlights the high genetic diversity in penaeid shrimps, much of which awaits comprehensive population genetic investigations. Further studies on the genetic differentiation in the P. japonicus species complex (in particular the Indian Ocean populations) and other Penaeus species are needed to formulate knowledge-based fishery management and aquaculture development programs.
Sources: 1. The CD of the Aquaculture America 2006 and Marine Ornamentals '06 Abstracts. Genetic Differentiation and Geographical Distribution of Two Cryptic Species of the Kuruma Shrimp Penaeus Japonicus. Ka Hou Chu (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Kwok Ho Tsoi (Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, Hong Kong, China). Information: John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, CA 92082 USA (phone 760-751-5005, fax 760-751-5003, email email@example.com, webpage www.was.org). 2. Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org) Clade, Cryptic Species Complex, and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Site visit on May 24, 2006.
Stung by criticism that forest officers promote and patronize unauthorized shrimp farming, Bhitarkanika National Park authorities have drawn up a blueprint for the regeneration of mangroves in nearly 5,000 hectares of forest presently under the unauthorized occupation of shrimp farmers. "We are going ahead with the demolition of shrimp dikes that have unlawfully sprouted up in the park," said the divisional forest officer of the Rajnagar Mangrove (wildlife) Forest Division, Mr. Ajay Kumar Jena. The demolition will be undertaken shortly and the help of police has been sought to avert any law-and-order problems. Similar exercises undertaken in the past have not been entirely successful in checking mangrove degradation.
Source: The Statesman Mangroves to get fresh lease of life (http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=9&id=144792&usrsess=1). May 22, 2006.
Mangroves Brought to You by Google Earth
In southeast Sumatra's Lampung Province, illegal loggers in the greenbelt along the coast have cleared tens of thousands of hectares of mangrove forests to make way for small-scale shrimp farms. Now coastal erosion, caused by the removal of the mangroves, is putting many of them out of business.
Sulaiman [many Indonesians use just one name], 40, a small-scale shrimp farmer in southern Lampung, said that mangrove forest destruction has been going on for the past five years and that it has accelerated in the past year. He said the erosion has forced hundreds of small-scale postlarvae farmers into bankruptcy, followed by the small-scale hatcheries that supply them. Large-scale shrimp farms, inland from the greenbelt, are not affected as much by the coastal erosion.
Illegal logging is still going on around the PT Dipasena Citra Darmaja shrimp farm in Tulangbawang Regency. Company spokesman Agus Tito said that local residents had cleared 3,000 hectares of mangrove forest. Tito said that if mangrove logging continued along the greenbelt, coastal erosion could threaten the large farms that lie just to the west of the greenbelt.
Herza, director of Mitral Bentala, an NGO that advocates the conservation of mangrove forests, said that in Lampung Province, the coastal erosion is caused by the rampant conversion of mangrove forest into small shrimp farms by local residents who locate their farms around 100 meters from the beach.
Harris Hasyim, an aide to the governor of Lampung Province, said it would cost $222 million to restore the damage done to the mangrove forests in the province.
Google Earth: If you have Google Earth installed on your computer, you can view the southeast coast of Sumatra in incredible detail. Type "Indonesia" into the search box in the upper left-hand corner of the Google Earth window and hit return. The island of Sumatra will appear midway up on the very left side of your screen. Use the controls under the map to zero in on its southeast coast I guarantee that you will be absolutely amazed by what you see--huge, inland shrimp farms along the entire 200-mile coast and the thin greenbelt where the small farms locate.
This is not like any map you have ever seen It's a 3-D model of the real world, based on satellite images combined with maps. You can zoom from space to street level instantly and then pan or jump from place to place, city to city, even country to country.
If you don't have Google Earth installed on your computer, you can download it for FREE at http://earth.google.com.
Sources: 1. The Jakarta Post Lampung's mangroves now only a beautiful memory (http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailnational.asp?fileid=20060529.G03&irec=5). Oyos Saroso H.N May 29, 2006. 2. Google Earth. 3. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, May 29, 2006.
Publicly traded shrimp breeding company PT Central Proteinaprima (CP Prima) plans to issue bonds valued at up to $150 million to repay debt.
A company official said CP Prima also hopes to earn cash from an initial public offering (IPO), some of which will be used to repay a short-term debt to Barclays Capital. Before launching the IPO, the company received a loan of $250 million from Barclays Capital.
In 2005, CP Prima reported a profit of $26 million, against a loss of $684,000 in 2004.
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). Indonesian shrimp company CP Prima to issue bonds and raise cash from public offering. Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 781-861-1441, email firstname.lastname@example.org) May 24, 2006.
Whitespot Payments and Penaeus vannamei
On May 24, 2006, Eskandar Golestani, an official with the Union of Shrimp Producers, said $4.4 million will be lent to shrimp farmers in Bushehr Province in the next few days. "We are paying them this as compensation for last year's outbreak of whitespot that almost wiped out the shrimp farming industry in Bushehr," he said. The shrimp farmers must repay the loans in 30 months.
In order to reduce losses that from future outbreaks, four shrimp farming companies have recently started to farm Penaeus vannamei in some 80 hectares of ponds in the province.
Source: MehrNews.com. Economic news in brief /Bushehri shrimp producers to be paid for whitespot loss (http://www.mehrnews.ir/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=331072). May 25, 2006.
Wanted Consultant for Feasibility Study
I am looking for companies or individuals willing to do a full-fledged feasibility study for an aquaculture farm in Oman.
Information: Dr. Jean-Yves Mevel, P.O. Box 3405, Ruwi 112, Sultanate of Oman (phone 968-99-03-75-25, email email@example.com).
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, "firstname.lastname@example.org"). Subject: [shrimp] call for study From: email@example.com. May 28, 2006.
California-Dallas Weaver, Prediction
Dallas Weaver, a water quality expert and hatchery consultant, posted this prediction to the Shrimp List:
"For all practical purposes, the USA will not develop a reasonably sized marine aquaculture industry in the next 25 years... We probably will continue funding things like the shrimp mariculture initiative and producing significant research papers relevant to aquaculture. We will also do some good genetic work and may end up providing improved broodstock and related technology items to aquaculture outside the USA, while we continue to spend billions on imported aquaculture products."
"We won't solve the regulatory problem that needs to be solved to have a reasonable marine aquaculture industry (especially offshore aquaculture). This is an opportunity for the rest of the world, as our imports of marine aquaculture products will continue to increase. The USA research will be available to the rest of the world and be useful in decreasing production cost (all this research can be viewed as a foreign aid program), so come and take advantage of all the information that we won't be able to use."
"Watching our legislature here in California has turned me into a real pessimist regarding aquaculture in the USA. However, I am still very optimistic about aquaculture in other countries and believe that aquaculture will continue to decrease production costs to the point where aquaculture products (shrimp in particular) become the 'chicken of the equatorial belt'. Aquatic animals don't have to stand up or keep warm, which means that they can always beat chickens in food conversion."
Information: Dallas E. Weaver, Ph.D., Scientific Hatcheries, 8152 Evelyn Circle, Huntington Beach, CA 92646 USA (phone 714-960-4171, cell 714-614-3925, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage www.scientifichatcheries.com).
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, "email@example.com"). Subject: Re: [shrimp] speaking of gauntlet. From: firstname.lastname@example.org May 22, 2006.
Florida-Shrimp Improvement Systems, Jim Norris
In March 2006, Shrimp Improvement Systems, a supplier of genetically improved Penaeus vannamei broodstock, hired Jim Norris as general manager of its facilities in the Florida Keys. Formerly, Jim was general manager of Shrimp Culture Technologies, where he directed the Sea Farm International Group's selective breeding program.
Information: Jim Norris, Shrimp Improvement Systems, Inc., 88005 Overseas Highway, No. 10-166, Islamorada, Florida, 33036 USA (phone 305-852-0872, fax 305-852-0874, email email@example.com, webpage www.shrimpimprovement.com).
Source: Email from Shrimp Improvement Systems to Shrimp Farming International. Subject: Re: From Shrimp News From: firstname.lastname@example.org. May 29, 2006.
Florida-Aquatic Eco-Systems, Yoshi Hirono
Yoshi Hirono, one of the founding fathers of shrimp farming in the Western Hemisphere, returns to aquaculture after an absence of about five years. For some background information on him, go to http://www.shrimpnews.com/History.html and type "Hirono" into the search box.
Since mid-May 2006, Hirono has been working for Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc., in Florida, a supplier of equipment for farms and hatcheries that helps solve problems in aquaculture, ponds and lakes. He is an aquaculture biologist in the International Division.
Information: Yoshi Hirono, Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc., 2395 Apopka Boulevard, Apopka, FL 32703 USA (phone 407-886-3939, extension 186, email email@example.com).
Sources: 1. Email to Shrimp News International from Yoshi Hirono. Subject: new email addresses. From: Yoshi Hironoy May 22, 2006. 2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, May 31, 2006.
On April 28, 2006, The Virgin Islands Daily News reported that University of the Virgin Islands researchers on the island of St. Thomas had, for the first time, produced shrimp using "aquaponics", an environmentally friendly aquaculture technique that combines agriculture with aquaculture (http://www.virginislandsdailynews.com/index.pl/article_editorial?id=16319080).
On May 20, 2006, the paper published a letter to the editor from J. J. Estemac that corrected some of the information in the original article.
Estemac said: I would like to comment on the shrimp farming research editorial that The Daily News printed on April 28, 2006, and hopefully clarify some things.
The research was conducted on the island of St. Croix, not the island St. Thomas.
The Experiment Station aquaculture program has two culture systems: an aquaponic system and a greenwater tank system (also known as bio-floc aquaculture). Shrimp are not currently cultured in our aquaponics system like you mentioned. Aquaponics is a hybrid of aquaculture and hydroponics, and due to the shrimp's requirement for salt and the low tolerance of most plants to salt, the two cannot be combined.
The shrimp you discussed in your article were cultured in our greenwater (bio-floc) system, which is intended only for fish and/or shrimp production. The greenwater system is thought to be an ideal production system for the islands because it minimizes water and land use and maximizes production.
We have many shrimp research studies planned to investigate the possibility of producing shrimp in the islands, but until we complete the studies we remain skeptical about the economic feasibility of bio-floc aquaculture. This is especially true since we will have to compete with foreign products. Our goal is to provide Virgin Island farmers with a practical production system that is profitable and capable of supplying local markets with a fresh product.
Source: The Virgin Islands Daily News. Letters to the Editor On shrimp farming research (http://www.virginislandsdailynews.com/index.pl/article_editorial?id=17590766). J.J. Estemac. May 20, 2006.
Sea Ranching Tigers
The Ho Chi Minh City People's Committee reports that as many as 500,000 tiger shrimp will be released into the sea each year by the Department for Seafood Quality Management and Protection to supplement wild stocks.
Source: VNAnet.vn HCMC to breed tiger prawns in sea (http://www.vnagency.com.vn/newsA.asp?LANGUAGE_ID=2&CATEGORY_ID=30&NEWS_ID=199268). May 16, 2006.
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